Inadvertent changes to macronutrients and individual variation add complexity to nutrition research

Inadvertent changes to macronutrients and individual variation add complexity to nutrition research

[Rhonda]: But, with your diet, you limited
the protein intake, and you didn’t limit the caloric intake, that was the other study? [Dr. Verdin]: No. The protein intake was actually 10% isocaloric
between all of the diets that we tested, and the other group did the same thing. So, we were very careful not to change the
protein intake. And the other group actually did change a
bit the protein content, which could be taken as a confounding variable. So, I think we were very careful in not changing
the protein count there. [Rhonda]: Is that standard for… You know, ketogenic diets have grown in popularity. And, you know, so do you think that the ketogenic
diet you used you hadn’t have done a 10% protein if they had done a little bit more? I’m not sure if maybe that technically wouldn’t
have even been a ketogenic diet. But would it have changed the IGF-1 mTOR axis
as much, or… [Dr. Verdin]: You’re bringing an important
point, which is that a number of people who go on a ketogenic diet tend to compensate
by increasing their protein intake, which might actually put them at risk for exactly
what you’re describing, increase IGF-1 signaling and increase actually risk of cancer. There’s a really close correlation between
your IGF-1 level and your risk of cancer. So, I think this is something that needs to
be considered in the future for people who are on a long-term ketogenic diet. [Rhonda]: And with the caloric restriction
diets as well, there was a study I remember reading that humans that end up doing caloric
restriction, like just the whole society of caloric restriction, they eat, you know, 30%
less calories than they normally would or whatever, something like that. But, they end up eating a higher percentage
of protein, because it’s more satiating. So, humans sort of naturally gravitate to
eating more protein when they’re eating less food. And so what’s interesting is a lot of those… I think you even published a study recently
looking at biomarkers of aging in lymphocytes or monocytes? [Dr. Verdin]: Yes. And we saw no difference between people in
calorie restriction. This is something important to consider when
lot of the work that we do in the lab are done on mice that are isogenic or congenic,
so these are mice that are also mated to one another. When
you bring discoveries to the human population, it is critical to take into consideration
the incredible variation between different people and how they might respond to the same
interventions. We know from everything that we’ve studied
in the medicine that I am not the same as you are and you are different from your neighbor
in many biological responses, and that includes response through calorie restriction as suspected. In a number of people, it would actually do
them harm, and in a number of people, it will do them good. We know this when we test it from strains
of mice by calorie restriction. Half of the strains actually responded by
shortening of lifespan, the other half by an increase in lifespan. So, we take calorie restriction, for example,
as a universal modification that will increase lifespan. It’s not what is seen in the literature,
and I would say the same is going to be even more true for humans. So, I think this brings out one of the key
things that is lacking in the field of aging, is the identification of biomarkers that would
allow us to test on an individual basis whether the intervention or the modifications that
you’re imposing is actually pointing you in the right direction or in the wrong direction. And I would caution anyone who’s considering
doing something long-term in terms of their health to be very careful in how they feel
and how…because we don’t have these biomarkers of aging. They’re emerging, but they’re not validated,
and certainly not in the human populations. They’re emerging in mice models and other
models, but sort of that’s really where we will be going in the next few years, is
really having true biomarkers that allow us to predict whether a given intervention is
beneficial or actually hurtful.

4 thoughts on “Inadvertent changes to macronutrients and individual variation add complexity to nutrition research

  1. Watch the full episode:

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  2. The holy grail of longevity … A blood test to tell us individually what our best macronutrient and caloric strategies should be !

    Until we know those individual markers, what's the best choice ? For me (39yo male) I feel great on a healthy, sugar free isocaloric diet with about a 20% caloric surplus during 3-4 months of above average exercise (marathon training , hiit , weights)… Then I'll hit a ketogenic diet at about a 20% caloric restriction for couple months because hey! who can dispute the benefits of cycling a keto diet into your life right ?!?

    This combined with 16-8 or 12-12 time restricted eating and daily HOT SAUNA use of course 🙂

    A special thanks to people like Dr. Rhonda Patrick and Dr. Peter Attia for all their great research and putting it out there for all of us to absorb !!

  3. This is thought provoking and really rings true. This is refreshingly honest. So much dietary advice adopts a one size fits all model.
    How can that be right when there is so much variation in humans in both in their evolutionary paths, diets and environments …. one person might thrive on a near vegan diet another become quite ill.  Ketogenic diets with lots of saturated fats might be great for one person but for an Apoe4 person be quite harmful.

    thank you for these great videos and interesting guests.

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