Natural Selection

Natural Selection

Captioning is on! Click the CC button at bottom right to turn off. Follow the amoebas on Twitter @AmoebaSisters or on Facebook! Have you ever had strep throat? Not all sore
throats are strep, but strep throat is caused by bacteria. And if you have had it before,
it typically really hurts. Chances are, if you have had it, you have taken a course of
antibiotics. Antibiotics are specifically designed to destroy prokaryote cells—which
in your body will be bacteria—instead of your own cells which are eukaryote cells. We have another video all about bacteria and
antibiotics, but this video is going to mention a concern we all have right now about antibiotic
resistance that can happen in bacteria. It’s also the perfect opportunity to illustrate
a process that usually takes a very long time to see—-natural selection. Let’s explain
a basic example of natural selection. Consider these frogs sitting on logs in their
habitat. Let’s assume these are the same species of frog so they can breed with each
other and they pass down their DNA to their offspring. Naturally, there is variety in
these frogs. Some of these frogs are darker green—maybe almost a brown. Some of them
are lighter green. There is a variety of traits even in the same species. Just like in people. So back to the log. You know what else is
in this habitat? Predators. And the predators are finding here that the lighter frogs are
much easier to see in this habitat than the darker frogs. So, in this particular environment,
the darker frogs are having an easier time surviving and potentially more fitness if
they can breed. Fitness, in the biological sense, is determined by not how long they
live—but by how many offspring they have. These darker frogs pass down their DNA to
their offspring so that the new baby frogs will have DNA from their parents. The lighter
frogs are being selected against since they are easier to see in this habitat. Over a
long period of time, you could expect to see a higher frequency of darker frogs. If it
continues for a very long time, it could even result in all frogs in this area being darker.
Evolution—-which is change over time—-could take place because natural selection has occurred.
Natural selection is a mechanism of evolution. One thing to point out…it doesn’t necessarily
mean that the allele for lighter color is gone completely. The allele could be recessive
and carried within the population. And because of processes like crossing over and mutations,
there are opportunities for variety. But if this habitat and predators do not change,
darker frogs will continue to have more fitness. Now we do want to point out that variation
or mutations are not things that a frog can “will” itself to have. Frogs can’t just
think, “You know, it’s better for me to be darker so I’m just going to have some
variation to be darker.” Because if that was true, well, let’s just say I might be
a bit different. Mutations and variation are RANDOM. It’s possible they might not have
any effect on an organism’s fitness so in that case, the genes are be passed on if that
organism happens to be able to reproduce. Or variations and mutations could be negative.
If they are negative and negatively affect the organism’s fitness—-meaning no babies—-well
then that trait will not be passed down. But if they have a positive effect on the fitness,
then that frog may have more babies than average because that trait is helping them survive
and reproduce. More babies will receive the passed those genes. Over time, that trait
that is an advantage will be more frequent in the population. So what does this have to do with natural
selection in bacteria that occurs from antibiotics? Well keep in mind, there’s variation in
bacteria as well. For example, some of them might have an enhanced cell wall that makes
it hard for an antibiotic to enter or they could contain enzymes that could assist in
breaking down an antibiotic. Now remember the bacteria didn’t “will” themselves
to have those traits. Like our frog example, they
are random variations. However when you take antibiotics, the environment is being altered.
The bacteria that have traits that allow them to survive that particular antibiotic have
higher fitness and can reproduce, passing on their DNA. Bacteria that do not have traits
to help them with the antibiotics do not have very much fitness. Because they’re dying.
They can’t have fitness if they’re dead. Selection has taken place and the resistant
bacteria are the survivors. Once all of their competition is killed off, they can reproduce
easily with few competition and their offspring can inherit the gene that allows them to be
resistant to that specific type of antibiotic. Bacteria also have this amazing ability to
transfer genes to other bacteria, so they could share that resistant gene with other
bacteria. It is possible that this specific type of antibiotic may not be as effective
for this person in the future. Hospitals especially have this challenge because they are treating
multiple patients with bacterial infections in a closed environment. Healthcare workers
must have good hygiene practices so that they do not spread resistant bacterial infections
from one infected person to another. So while this is an example of natural selection
that is observable in a shorter amount of time—which can result in evolution in bacteria,
what can be done about this resistance issue? Scientists are often in the process of developing
new antibiotics—-because we do have many types of antibiotics available—so they can
stay one step ahead of bacteria. But there are still bacterial strains out there that
have developed a resistance to commonly used antibiotics making it very difficult to treat.
So it’s important to only take antibiotics for bacterial infections. Antibiotics don’t
work against viruses, and you don’t want to be introducing antibiotics in your body
when you don’t need them. That will just further select for bacteria that have some
form of resistance. It’s also important to mention that many vaccines like the DTaP
vaccine can protect you from serious, potentially deadly bacterial infections such as diptheria,
tetanus, and pertussis. Well that’s it for the amoeba sisters and we remind you to stay

100 thoughts on “Natural Selection

  1. I watched videos like these in my sophomore year of high school and now I'm a freshman in college and we're still watching these videos.

  2. Love these videos I use them all the time in my lessons, I teach 10th grade biology! The kiddos enjoy them to and laugh at the subtle jokes. Its a nice break from hearing me talk! Thank you for making these ๐Ÿ™‚

  3. your videos are gay the only reason i watch it is because my school tells me to inorder to finish homework

  4. We could also use bacteriophages when dealing with those resistant bacteria. Also, bacteriophages can evolve.

  5. As we mention in video details, this video is focused on a mechanism of evolution: natural selection. We eventually hope to make a video specifically on evolution itself as this video does not formally define evolution. Natural selection is a scientific theory, but there is a lot of confusion on what a scientific theory really is. You may be interested in our video that explains what a scientific theory is Also, this video has a resource!

  6. "No currently existing formal language can tolerate random changes in the symbol sequences which express its sentences. Meaning is invariably destroyed." – M. Eden, "Inadequacies of Neo-Darwinian Evolution as a Scientific Theory", from "Mathematical Challenges to the Neo-Darwinian Interpretation of Evolution," at the Wistar Institute Symposium, page 11 (Philadelphia, Wistar Institute Press, 1967, Cited by Wysong, ref [7], p. 107.

    "All morphological mutations that we know of either have no effect on the organism at all – no fitness effect – or they're harmful. We don't know of any that are useful." – Dr. Johnathan Wells, Ph.D in Molecular and Cell Biology from the University of California at Berkeley, formerly a postdoctoral research biologist at the University of California at Berkeley, supervisor of a medical laboratory in Fairfield, California. He has taught biology at California State University in Hayward and continues to lecture on the subject.

    "But there is no evidence that DNA mutations can provide the sorts of variation needed for evolution. There is no evidence for beneficial mutations at the level of macroevolution, but there is also no evidence at the level of what is commonly regarded as microevolution." – Dr. Johnathan Wells, Ph.D in Molecular and Cell Biology from the University of California at Berkeley, formerly a postdoctoral research biologist at the University of California at Berkeley, supervisor of a medical laboratory in Fairfield, California. He has taught biology at California State University in Hayward and continues to lecture on the subject.

    "Mutations, in summary, tend to induce sickness, death, or deficiencies. No evidence in the vast literature of heredity change shows unambiguous evidence that random mutation itself, even with geographical isolation of populations leads to speciation." – Lynn Margulis, evolutionist, Acquiring Genomes, 2003, p. 29.

    "Not even one mutation has ever been observed that adds a little information to the genome." – Dr. Lee Spetner, scientist and teacher at Johns Hopkins University, Not by Chance! Shattering the Modern Theory of Evolution

    "But in all the reading I've done in the life-sciences literature, I've never found a mutation that added information. All point mutations that have been studied on the molecular level turn out to reduce the genetic information and not increase it." – Lee Spetner – Ph.D. Physics, MIT, Not By Chance: Shattering the Modern Theory of Evolution

    Distribution of fitness effects caused by random insertion mutations in Escherichia coli, Excerpt: "At least 80% of the mutations had a significant negative effect on fitness, whereas none of the mutations had a significant positive effect."

    โ€œI have seen no evidence whatsoever that these [evolutionary] changes can occur through the accumulation of gradual mutations.โ€ — Lynn Margulis, as quoted by Charles Mann, โ€œLynn Margulis: Scienceโ€™s Unruly Earth Mother,โ€ Science, Vol. 252, 19 April 1991, p. 379.

    โ€œIf we say that it is only by chance that they [mutations] are useful, we are still speaking too leniently. In general, they are useless, detrimental, or lethal.โ€ – W. R. Thompson, โ€œIntroduction to The Origin of Species,โ€ Everyman Library No. 811 (New York: E. P. Dutton & Sons, 1956; reprint, Sussex, England: J. M. Dent and Sons, Ltd., 1967), p. 10.

    10 Laws of Nature Regarding Information, which prove evolution false and prove creation is true:

    1. Anything material, such as physical/chemical processes, cannot create something non-material
    2. Information is a non-material fundamental entity and not a property of matter
    3. Information requires a material medium for storage and transmission
    4. Information cannot arise from statistical processes
    5. There can be no information without a code — no thought or idea can be shared without a code
    6. All codes result from an intentional choice and agreement between sender and recipient
    7. The determination of meaning for and from a set of symbols is a mental process that requires intelligence
    8. There can be no new information without an intelligent, purposeful sender
    9. Any given chain of information can be traced back to an intelligent source
    10. Information comprises the non-material foundation for all:
    a. technological systems
    b. works of art
    c. biological systems

    1. Since the DNA code of all life is clearly within the definition domain of information, we conclude that there must be a sender
    2. Since the density and complexity of the DNA encoded information is billions of times greater than man's present technology, we conclude that the sender must be supremely intelligent
    3. Since the sender must have
    a. encoded (stored) the information into the DNA molecules,
    b. constructed the molecular biomachines required for the encoding, decoding, and synthesizing process and,
    c. designed all the features for the original life forms,

    We conclude the sender must be purposeful and supremely powerful.
    4. Since information is a non-material fundamental entity and cannot originate from material quantities, we conclude that the sender must have a non-material component
    5. Since information is a non-material fundamental entity and cannot originate from material quantities, and since information also originates from man, we conclude man's nature must have a non-material component (spirit)
    6. Since information is a non-material entity, we conclude that the assumption "the universe is comprised solely of mass and energy" is false.
    7. Since:
    1) biological information originates only from an intelligent sender and,
    2) all theories of chemical and biological evolution require that information must originate solely from mass and energy alone (without a sender), we conclude that all theories or concepts of biological evolution are false.

    Anyone who disagrees with these laws and conclusions must falsify them by demonstrating the initial origin of information from purely material sources. Therefore, the laws of nature about information have: 1. refuted the assumption of scientific materialism and the theories of chemical and biological evolution 2. all philosophies or theories based on the assumption of scientific materialism including chemical and biological evolution are falsified by the laws of nature about information.

    For more information:

  7. You're video is so amazing! This video is focused on a mechanism of evolution- natural selection. I love this video, this is very helpful because this video helped me a lot and to learn more about natural selection. Thank you for all the clear explanation.

  8. guys i love u so much like ur SO helpful like with these animations and stuff u make it so easy to understand:), i wish you could tutor me face to face ๐Ÿ™

  9. Thank god for this channel! Everything being said makes sense. They really knew how to capture my attention with them cartoon drawings.

  10. You girls make learning biology fun,it is fun either way, but the way you present it with that energy in your voices makes people not want to fall asleep. Plus I'm in High school and it helps a lot, I'm probably still going to use this when I'm an adult, you make science rule, keep making more interesting videos because you are amazing at presenting!

  11. New organs or traits cannot emerge in living things through Natural selection. A species genetic data does not develop by means of it, and it cannot be used to account for the emergence of new species. Natural selection has no intelligence. It does not possess a will that can decide what is good and what is bad for living things. As a result, natural selection cannot explain how biological systems and organs that possess the feature of "irreducible complexity" came into being. These systems and organs are composed of a great number of parts working together, and are of no use if even one is missing or defective. The human eye cannot function unless it exists with all it's components intact. The will that brings all these parts together should be able to foresee the future and aim directly at the advantage that is to be acquired at the final stage. Since natural selection has no consciousness or will, it can do no such thing. This fact demolishes the foundations of the theory of evolution.

  12. Sorry didnt enjoy please try harder lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll

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  14. ๐Ÿ˜ฐ๐Ÿ˜‰๐Ÿ˜ฐ๐Ÿ˜˜๐Ÿฅต๐Ÿ˜—๐Ÿ˜˜๐Ÿ˜ฐ๐Ÿ™‚๐Ÿคญ๐Ÿ˜‚๐Ÿ˜•๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ˜ถ๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ˜ถ๐Ÿง๐Ÿค”๐Ÿ˜‹๐Ÿ™ƒ๐Ÿ˜ณ๐Ÿ˜›๐Ÿค—๐Ÿ™ƒ๐Ÿ˜›๐Ÿ˜ค๐Ÿ˜‰๐Ÿ˜ฉ๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿง๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ˜‹๐Ÿ˜‹๐Ÿคญ๐Ÿ˜›๐Ÿคญ๐Ÿ˜‹๐Ÿ˜‰๐Ÿ™ƒ๐Ÿ˜ฆ๐Ÿ˜˜๐Ÿ˜ฅ๐Ÿ˜˜๐Ÿง๐Ÿคญ๐Ÿ˜ฆ๐Ÿ˜˜๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ˜ฅ๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ˜ฐ๐Ÿ˜’๐Ÿ˜ง๐Ÿ˜ฅ๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ˜ง๐Ÿฅต๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿค”๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ˜›๐Ÿค”๐Ÿ˜›๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ˜ฆ๐Ÿฅต๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿค”๐Ÿ˜˜๐Ÿค”๐Ÿ˜˜๐Ÿ˜ฆ๐Ÿ˜˜๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ˜˜๐Ÿ˜ช๐Ÿ˜ฅ๐Ÿ˜˜๐Ÿค“๐Ÿ˜ฌ๐Ÿ˜—๐Ÿ˜‘๐Ÿ˜˜๐Ÿ˜ช๐Ÿ˜˜๐Ÿ˜ง๐Ÿ˜›๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿค”๐Ÿฅถ๐Ÿ˜ฆ๐Ÿ™๐Ÿฅต๐Ÿ˜ž๐Ÿค”๐Ÿฅถ๐Ÿ˜ž๐Ÿ˜ง๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿค”๐Ÿ˜ฆ๐Ÿ˜˜๐Ÿง๐Ÿ˜ณ๐Ÿค“๐Ÿ˜ฆ๐Ÿฅฐ๐Ÿ˜ณ๐Ÿฅฐ๐Ÿง๐Ÿค—๐Ÿ˜ณ๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿค—๐Ÿฅฐ๐Ÿ˜ ๐Ÿง๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ˜˜๐Ÿ˜ณ๐Ÿ˜ถ๐Ÿค“๐Ÿค”๐Ÿ˜’๐Ÿฅต๐Ÿ˜ฆ๐Ÿ˜’๐Ÿค”๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ˜ฅ๐Ÿ˜’๐Ÿค”๐Ÿ˜›๐Ÿ˜ฆ๐Ÿ˜›๐Ÿคค๐Ÿคญ๐Ÿ˜’๐Ÿ˜ฅ๐Ÿ˜ฆ๐Ÿ˜’๐Ÿฅต๐Ÿ˜ฆ๐Ÿ˜’๐Ÿฅถ๐Ÿค”๐Ÿ˜’๐Ÿ˜ฆยฉ๏ธ๐Ÿ”น๐Ÿ”น๐Ÿ”ฒโ—พ๏ธโžฐ๐Ÿ’ญ๐Ÿ”šโžฐโฌœ๏ธใ€ฐ๏ธโฌœ๏ธใ€ฐ๏ธโšช๏ธโฌœ๏ธ๐Ÿ”š๐Ÿ”ฒ๐Ÿ”Šโ„ข๏ธ๐Ÿ”ดโž—โžฟ๐Ÿ”ต๐Ÿ”ƒ๐Ÿ”˜๐Ÿ”ƒยฎ๏ธ๐Ÿ”ƒ๐Ÿ”š๐Ÿ”„ยฎ๏ธโคต๏ธ๐ŸŽตโ†•๏ธโฌ†๏ธโคต๏ธโ†•๏ธ๐Ÿ”€โ†–๏ธโ†–๏ธ๐Ÿ”„โ†•๏ธ๐Ÿ”ƒโ†–๏ธ๐Ÿ”ผ

  15. โฌ‡๏ธ๐Ÿ”ผ๐Ÿ”ผโ†•๏ธ๐Ÿ”ผโ†”๏ธโ†”๏ธโฌ†๏ธยฉ๏ธ๐Ÿ”ปโ„ข๏ธ๐Ÿ”ธโ„ข๏ธ๐Ÿ”ณโ„ข๏ธโžฐ๐Ÿ—ฏโฌœ๏ธโž–๐Ÿ”™โ—พ๏ธ๐Ÿ”š๐Ÿ”ทโšซ๏ธ๐Ÿ”„๐Ÿ”ทโฌœ๏ธ๐Ÿ”„โž—๐Ÿ””โ†•๏ธโ„ข๏ธ๐Ÿ”ธ๐Ÿ””โฌ‡๏ธโ—พ๏ธ๐Ÿ”ธโ†˜๏ธ๐Ÿ”ธโ†”๏ธ๐ŸŽตโฌœ๏ธ๐Ÿ”€โ†—๏ธ๐Ÿ—ฏโคต๏ธโœ–๏ธ๐Ÿ”ฒโ„ข๏ธ๐Ÿ”ฒโฌœ๏ธโคต๏ธ๐Ÿ—ฏโ–ช๏ธโคต๏ธ๐Ÿ”ˆ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ด๐Ÿ•ก๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ•–๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ•›๐Ÿ•‘๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ•Ÿ๐Ÿ•‘๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ผ๐Ÿ•ฆ๐Ÿ•‘๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฝ๐Ÿ•ฅ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ•ฅ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฝ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฎโ™ฆ๏ธ๐Ÿ•‘๐Ÿ•ก๐Ÿƒ๐Ÿ•˜๐Ÿ™‰๐Ÿ•ธ๐Ÿฆ…๐Ÿฆ„๐Ÿ•Š๐Ÿฆ™๐ŸŒ๐Ÿฆ–๐Ÿ…๐ŸŒ๐Ÿฌ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ•ท๐Ÿฆž๐Ÿฆ…๐ŸŽ๐Ÿฆ…๐Ÿฆˆ๐Ÿฆ€๐Ÿฆ๐Ÿ„๐Ÿฌ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿฆ๐Ÿ„๐Ÿฌ๐Ÿฆ†๐Ÿฆ๐Ÿฌ๐Ÿฆ๐Ÿ„๐Ÿ™‰๐Ÿฆ๐ŸŒ๐ŸŸ๐Ÿ„๐Ÿ•ท๐Ÿฆž๐Ÿ™‰๐Ÿซ๐Ÿ•ท๐Ÿฆ๐Ÿฌ๐Ÿ™‰๐Ÿซ๐Ÿ…๐Ÿ™‰๐Ÿฆ›๐Ÿซ๐Ÿฆ†๐Ÿฆ›๐Ÿ๐Ÿฆ›๐Ÿฆ’๐Ÿ™‰๐Ÿ๐Ÿฆ…๐Ÿฆ†๐ŸŒ๐Ÿฆ™๐ŸŠ๐Ÿฆ†๐Ÿซ๐Ÿฆ™๐Ÿด๐Ÿ™‰๐Ÿซ๐Ÿฆ†๐Ÿ™Š๐Ÿฌ๐Ÿด๐Ÿ™Š๐ŸฆŽ๐Ÿ ๐Ÿฆ๐Ÿฆ‚๐Ÿฆ๐Ÿž๐Ÿฆ๐Ÿฆ…๐Ÿž๐Ÿฆ…๐Ÿž๐Ÿฆ…๐Ÿ•ธ๐Ÿฆ†๐Ÿฆ˜๐ŸŒ๐ŸŽ๐Ÿž๐Ÿฆƒ๐Ÿ•Š๐Ÿ•Š๐ŸŠ๐Ÿฆ˜๐Ÿ๐Ÿ๐ŸŠ๐Ÿฆ™๐Ÿ–๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ„๐Ÿ•Š๐ŸŠ๐Ÿ„๐ŸŠ๐Ÿ„๐Ÿฆ›๐ŸŠ๐ŸŽ๐Ÿ’ฅ๐ŸŒœ๐Ÿ„๐Ÿ’ฅ๐Ÿ„๐Ÿ”ฅ๐Ÿ€๐ŸŒ™๐Ÿ€๐ŸŒนโญ๏ธ๐ŸŽ๐Ÿ’ฅ๐ŸŽ๐ŸŒโ›„๏ธ๐ŸŽ๐ŸŒน๐ŸŒค๐ŸŒนโ›„๏ธ๐ŸŽ๐ŸŒนโ›„๏ธ๐ŸŒนโœจโ›„๏ธ๐ŸŒนโ›„๏ธโœจ๐Ÿ”ฅ๐ŸŒง๐ŸŒ•โ›…๏ธ๐ŸŒน๐ŸŒ•๐Ÿ’ฅ๐ŸŒนโญ๏ธ๐ŸŒ๐ŸŒปโ›…๏ธ๐ŸŒทโ›…๏ธ๐ŸŒน๐ŸŒฅ๐ŸŒป๐Ÿ’ฅ๐ŸŒปโ›ˆ๐Ÿ’ฅ๐ŸŒนโ›ˆ๐Ÿ’ฅ๐Ÿ„๐ŸŒŸ๐Ÿ’ฅ๐Ÿ„๐ŸŒž๐ŸŒŸ๐ŸŒค๐Ÿ„๐Ÿ’ฅโ›ˆ๐Ÿ„๐ŸŒž๐ŸŒŽ๐Ÿ„๐ŸŒน๐ŸŒ๐Ÿ„๐ŸŒžโœจโ›…๏ธ๐ŸŒžโ›…๏ธโ›„๏ธ๐ŸŒป๐ŸŒฌ๐ŸŒป๐ŸŒฌ๐Ÿ๐ŸŒปโ›…๏ธ๐ŸŒปโ›…๏ธ๐ŸŒŸ๐ŸŒน๐ŸŒš๐ŸŒŸ๐ŸŒ•๐ŸŒงโ›ˆ๐ŸŒฌ๐ŸŒช๐ŸŒช๐Ÿ„โ›…๏ธโ›„๏ธ๐Ÿฅ€โ›…๏ธ๐ŸŒฌ๐ŸŽโ›…๏ธ๐Ÿฅ€๐ŸŒช๐Ÿšโ˜”๏ธ๐Ÿ”ฅ๐Ÿš๐Ÿ”ฅ๐ŸŽ‹๐ŸŒง๐Ÿ”ฅ๐Ÿš๐Ÿš๐ŸŒค๐Ÿš๐ŸŒค๐ŸŒคโ˜ƒ๏ธ๐Ÿš๐Ÿ’ฅ๐ŸŽ‹๐Ÿ’ฅ๐ŸŒ๐Ÿ„โ›ˆโšก๏ธ๐Ÿ„๐Ÿ”ฅโ›ˆ๐Ÿ€๐ŸŒโ›ˆ๐Ÿ€๐ŸŒนโ›ˆ๐Ÿ”ฅ๐Ÿ„๐Ÿ”ฅโœจ๐ŸŒนโ›…๏ธ๐Ÿ๐ŸŒช๐ŸŒปโ›ˆ๐ŸŒปโšก๏ธ๐ŸŒน๐ŸŒ๐Ÿฅ€๐ŸŒ’๐Ÿ’ฅ๐ŸŒด๐Ÿš๐ŸŒ–๐ŸŒ™๐Ÿฅ€๐ŸŒฑ๐Ÿฅ€๐ŸŒน๐Ÿ„๐Ÿ„๐Ÿš๐ŸŽ๐Ÿ„๐ŸŒด๐Ÿ„๐ŸŒด๐Ÿ„๐ŸŒด๐ŸŒน๐ŸŽ๐Ÿฑ๐Ÿ๐Ÿš๐Ÿ“๐Ÿš๐Ÿ†๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿœ๐Ÿง€๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ†๐Ÿ˜๐ŸฅŸ๐Ÿ“๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿœ๐Ÿ‡๐Ÿœ๐Ÿฅญ๐Ÿš๐Ÿ๐Ÿœ๐Ÿง€๐Ÿš๐Ÿœ๐Ÿง€๐Ÿš๐Ÿœ๐Ÿ†๐Ÿฅฉ๐Ÿœ๐Ÿ…๐Ÿง€๐Ÿง๐Ÿœ๐Ÿ“๐Ÿฌ๐Ÿฅš๐Ÿœ๐ŸŒถ๐Ÿฅš๐Ÿœ๐Ÿข๐Ÿฅš๐Ÿš๐Ÿฅ’๐Ÿš๐Ÿœ๐Ÿฅญ๐Ÿง๐Ÿง€๐Ÿš๐Ÿฅ’๐Ÿง๐Ÿฅ’๐Ÿฒ๐Ÿฅญ๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿฅ‘๐ŸŒถ๐Ÿค๐ŸŒถ๐Ÿฅ‘๐Ÿค๐Ÿฅš๐Ÿค๐Ÿฐ๐ŸŒถ๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿฒ๐Ÿฅ‘๐ŸŒถ๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿœ๐Ÿฅš๐Ÿก๐Ÿฅ‘๐Ÿฅš๐Ÿœ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿœ๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿฅ‘๐Ÿ—๐Ÿก๐Ÿœ๐Ÿฅ‘๐Ÿก๐Ÿฅš๐Ÿข๐Ÿ—๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿฌ๐Ÿœ๐Ÿฅ‘๐Ÿš๐Ÿœ๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿฐ๐Ÿœ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿฒ๐Ÿ†๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿง๐Ÿ†๐Ÿง๐Ÿœ๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿง๐Ÿœ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿฅ‘๐Ÿก๐Ÿง๐Ÿ—๐ŸฅŸ๐Ÿ†๐Ÿข๐ŸฅŸ๐Ÿฅ‘๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿง๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿฅ‘๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿ†๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿœ๐Ÿฅญ๐Ÿข๐ŸŒถ๐Ÿœ๐Ÿง€๐Ÿง๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿง๐Ÿœ๐ŸŒถ๐Ÿข๐ŸŒถ๐Ÿฌ๐Ÿœ๐ŸŒถ๐Ÿง๐Ÿœ๐ŸŒถ๐Ÿ†๐Ÿง๐Ÿฅš๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿœ๐ŸŒถ๐Ÿฅญ๐Ÿฌ๐Ÿฅ’๐Ÿœ๐Ÿฅญ๐Ÿœ๐Ÿฅš๐Ÿง๐Ÿง€๐Ÿš๐Ÿœ๐Ÿฅš๐Ÿš๐Ÿฌ๐Ÿฅ’๐Ÿœ๐Ÿ†๐Ÿฅš๐Ÿง๐Ÿฅญ๐Ÿฅš๐Ÿš๐Ÿœ๐Ÿฅญ๐Ÿข๐Ÿœ๐ŸŒถ๐Ÿข๐Ÿœ๐ŸŒถ๐Ÿœ๐Ÿฅš๐Ÿข๐Ÿœโ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธโ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿป๐ŸฅŒโ›ณ๏ธ๐Ÿบโ˜•๏ธ๐ŸฅŒโ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿน๐ŸฅŒ๐Ÿน๐Ÿต๐Ÿฅก๐ŸฅŒโ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸฅŒ๐Ÿน๐Ÿนโ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿน๐Ÿนโ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธโ›ณ๏ธ๐Ÿน๐ŸฅŒ๐Ÿน๐Ÿฅ‚๐Ÿคผโ€โ™€๏ธ๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿน๐Ÿคผโ€โ™€๏ธ๐Ÿน๐ŸŽฟ๐Ÿน๐ŸŽฟ๐Ÿต๐ŸŽฟ๐Ÿน๐Ÿคบ๐ŸŽฟ๐Ÿน๐ŸŽฟ๐Ÿ›น๐Ÿคบโ›ท๐Ÿต๐Ÿคผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿน๐Ÿน๐Ÿนโ›ทโšพ๏ธ๐Ÿฅโ›ทโ›ณ๏ธ๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿˆ๐Ÿนโ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿฅฃ๐Ÿฅ‚โ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿˆโ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿน๐Ÿนโ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿพโ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿพโ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿน๐Ÿพโ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿนโ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿน๐Ÿคผโ€โ™€๏ธ๐Ÿน๐Ÿ‹๐Ÿฟโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿ›น๐Ÿฅฃ๐Ÿคผโ€โ™€๏ธ๐Ÿ‰โ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿฅฃโ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿ›น๐Ÿฅโ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿนโ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿ›น๐Ÿฅฃ๐Ÿคผโ€โ™€๏ธ๐Ÿ›น๐Ÿน๐Ÿคผโ€โ™€๏ธ๐Ÿ‰๐Ÿ›น๐Ÿ‰๐Ÿคผโ€โ™€๏ธ๐Ÿ›น๐Ÿฅฃ๐Ÿ›น๐Ÿฅฃ๐Ÿ‰๐Ÿ›น๐Ÿˆ๐Ÿฅฃ๐Ÿ„โ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿนโ›ท๐Ÿฅก๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿ„โ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿ„โ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿพ๐Ÿšฃโ€โ™€๏ธ๐Ÿคผโ€โ™€๏ธ๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿ„โ€โ™‚๏ธโ›ท๐Ÿน๐Ÿ‰๐Ÿ„โ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿ‰โ›น๏ธโ€โ™€๏ธ๐Ÿนโ›ท๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿพโ›ทโ›น๏ธโ€โ™€๏ธ๐Ÿพโ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿ›น๐Ÿฅโ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿ‚๐Ÿฅโ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿฅโ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธโ›ท๐Ÿฅโ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธโ›ท๐Ÿฅโ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿฅก๐Ÿคผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŒ๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿ›น๐Ÿฅ๐Ÿ‰๐Ÿ›น๐ŸŒ๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿ‰๐Ÿคผโ€โ™€๏ธ๐Ÿ›น๐Ÿฅฃ๐ŸŠโ€โ™€๏ธ๐ŸŠโ€โ™€๏ธ๐ŸŽง๐ŸŽซ๐Ÿšฃ๐Ÿผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽง๐ŸŽซ๐Ÿ„โ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽฏ๐ŸŒ๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽซ๐Ÿšฃ๐Ÿผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽง๐Ÿšฃ๐Ÿผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽง๐Ÿคผโ€โ™€๏ธ๐Ÿ…๐Ÿคน๐Ÿฟโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿคผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽบ๐ŸŒ๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿฅˆ๐ŸŒ๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿšฃ๐Ÿผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿคนโ€โ™€๏ธ๐Ÿคผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽบ๐Ÿฅˆ๐ŸŒ๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿคผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿคนโ€โ™€๏ธ๐Ÿคผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿคนโ€โ™€๏ธ๐Ÿคผโ€โ™€๏ธ๐ŸŽบ๐ŸŽง๐ŸŒ๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽซ๐ŸŽง๐Ÿšฃ๐Ÿผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽค๐ŸŒ๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽท๐ŸŽซ๐Ÿคผโ€โ™€๏ธ๐ŸŽฏ๐ŸŒ๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽบ๐ŸŒ๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿšฃ๐Ÿผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽญ๐Ÿšฃ๐Ÿผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽญ๐Ÿคผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿšฃ๐Ÿผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽญ๐ŸŒ๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿคผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽท๐ŸŽญ๐Ÿคผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿšฃ๐Ÿผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽฏ๐ŸŽบ๐Ÿคผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿšด๐Ÿฝโ€โ™€๏ธ๐ŸŽท๐ŸŒ๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽฏ๐Ÿ„โ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽฏ๐Ÿคผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿšฃ๐Ÿผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽญ๐ŸŒ๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿšฃ๐Ÿผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽบ๐ŸŽญ๐Ÿšฃ๐Ÿผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽญ๐ŸŒ๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽท๐ŸŽซ๐Ÿคผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿšฃ๐Ÿผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽซ๐Ÿคผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿšฃ๐Ÿผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽท๐Ÿšฃ๐Ÿผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽซ๐Ÿคผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽบ๐ŸŠโ€โ™€๏ธ๐ŸŽบ๐ŸŽญ๐ŸŠโ€โ™€๏ธ๐ŸŽท๐ŸŒ๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿšฃ๐Ÿผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽญ๐Ÿคผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽบ๐ŸŽจ๐ŸŠโ€โ™€๏ธ๐ŸŽญโ™Ÿ๐ŸŒ๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿคผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽผ๐ŸŒ๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽฏ๐Ÿšฃ๐Ÿผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽฏ๐ŸŒ๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐Ÿคผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽง๐ŸŠโ€โ™€๏ธ๐ŸŽงโ™Ÿ๐Ÿšฃโ€โ™€๏ธ๐Ÿคผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽง๐Ÿš™๐ŸŽฟโ™Ÿ๐Ÿ„โ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽฟ๐ŸŽคโ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽง๐ŸšŒโ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽงโ™Ÿโ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธโ›ท๐ŸŽค๐ŸŠโ€โ™€๏ธ๐ŸŽฏ๐ŸŽซ๐Ÿšฃ๐Ÿผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽค๐ŸŽซโ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธโ›ทโ™Ÿ๐Ÿคผโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽฌ๐ŸŽ—โ›น๏ธโ€โ™‚๏ธ๐ŸŽค๐Ÿง—โ€โ™€๏ธ๐Ÿง—โ€โ™€๏ธ๐ŸŽบ๐ŸŽŸ๐Ÿ‡โ›ท๐ŸŽ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  16. 3:29 How dare you assume that the bump has nothing to do with the fitness of the organism? what if it tried to go through a log and got stuck, meaning that the frogs with a bump had a disadvantage?
    JK btw

  17. "we will now be performing the Fitness Gram Pacer Test on a log"
    Light Green Frogs: this will the be the end of Wakanda

  18. PEPPERED MOTHS LIE: In the early part of the 19th century woodland areas in England became heavily darkened due to industrial pollution. There were dark-colored (melanic) and light-colored (normal) species of peppered moths existing together. Before the pollution, there were more normal than melanic because the light lichen on trees made the black ones more susceptible to be eaten by birds. After the pollution had darkened the lichen the light ones became more vulnerable than the dark, so the portions inverted. After pollution laws were passed, the lichen on the trees became normal again. The proportions, more normal (light-colored) species than melanic(dark-colored), reverted back to what they were before the Industrial Revolutions pollution. The light-colored moths didnโ€™t "acquire" dark melanin, and the dark ones didnโ€™t replace the light ones as best suited to survive in their environment, so the neo-Darwinist re-definition of Natural Selection as random mutation, never took place.
    The next issue is, in the 1950' Bernard Kettlewell decided he was going to prove this occurrence was Natural Selection with an experiment. He marked and released equal proportions of the moths during the day, into a polluted woodland in England. As would be expected, on darkened lichen tree bark, the results were the birds favored the light ones. The problem with that is, in the wild, peppered moths don't expose themselves during the day. They stay hidden beneath tree trunks, to avoid predators, during the day and come out at night to feed. To make matters worse, he glued dead moths onto pollution covered trees, again during the day, and took photo's for "evidence" of Natural Selection. These fraudulent photos can still be found in some text books and viewed in Google images.
    The "greatest observed evidence" for Natural Selection was based on a proportional fluctuation in moths caused by man made pollution, a flawed experiment and staged photographs. Well respected evolutionary biologist Dr. Jerry Coyne was "embarrassed", when he learned the peppered moth story he had been teaching for years was a myth. "My own reaction," he wrote, "resembles the dismay attending my discovery, at the age of six, that is was my father and not Santa who brought the presents on Christmas Eve."

  19. So should people who have wisdom teeth die while the ~30% who don't have wisdom teeth continue to live? Isn't this how humans are suppose to evolve? The most fit group of species (with no wisdom teeth) suppose to take over those who aren't adapted (people with wisdom teeth)?

  20. 5 little speckeled frogs
    sitting on a speckled log
    eating the most delicious fies
    yum yum
    one jumped into a pool
    where it is nice and cool
    and now there are 4 green specked frogs
    blub blub

  21. Camouflage in organisms is one of the easiest-to-understand evidences that convinced me of premeditated design. One or a few mutations that weren't consciously caused (and so were caused by unconscious "forces") may be able to result in simple features like "color" that just "so happen" to resemble a color or colors in a prey animal's environment by "simple" coincidence, but it takes hundreds or THOUSANDS of mutations(and so hundreds or thousands of coincidences) to create whole musculo-skeletal systems of camouflage such as in stick bugs and leaf bugs. THAT many non-harmful mutations cannot just "so happen" to ALL "simultaneously coincide" at once in conception AND just so happen to be chemically and or synergistically compatible as needed within a one and same DNA molecule in the brief time it takes for one offspring DNA molecule to be conceived.

    Moreover, "DNA" cannot: 1)recognize a threat(i.e predator)(it takes visual perception and consciousness to do this); 2)visually perceive it's environment to realize what it needs to make the prey animal resemble in order to deceive a predator(it takes visual perception and consciousness to do this also); 3)realize that a predator could be fooled by such(it takes a consciousness to do this too); 4)recognize the specific mutations needed to create a camouflage that could deceive a predator; nor 5)will even "one" mutation to occur within itself for the purpose of deceiving a predator(this takes freewill). Therefore, unconsciously caused mutations (as opposed to consciously caused ones) cannot result in a whole musculo-skeletal system that resembles something in a prey animal's DNA molecule's environment that will effectively deceive a predator. A whole musculo-skeleton system of camouflage requires hundreds or thousands of mutations of nucleotides and genes that must be chemically and synergistically compatible to create EACH camouflage-possessing species. There were/are "at least" HUNDREDS of species that had/have camouflage. This is "at least" a hundred coincidences(number of mutations co-inciding to create a whole musculo-skeletal system for camouflage in each species) within "at least" a hundred coincidences(number of species that these coincidences have occurred in) that would have had to occur to create only "a hundred" species with bodies that look like something else to camouflage it. There were/are likely more species with camouflage that are now extinct or that we haven't found yet.

    What are the odds of this occurring without premeditated design?

    The odds against it are so high that it renders it if not impossible, then dismissively improbable. Just click on the below video link to see how amazing these creatures' camouflage is:

    Camouflage in animals is the most convincing evidence for Premeditated Design(what is best to call it to minimize the burden of proof so that we only have to show premeditation) because no one can point at any mechanism in physics and say "that results without premeditation so this can too" as atheists have done with certain other un-premeditated mechanisms in physics such as self-assembly of molecules in crystals to argue against Intelligent Design. As indicated in the end of my first paragraph in this reply, deception of prey via camouflage requires the above parenthesized things(e.g. visual perception, consciousness, etc).

    And finally, even if evolution did/does occur ,then that wouldn't disprove premeditated design, it would only prove it because the evolution process itself had to be premeditatively designed because there are over a BILLION species which ALL have HUNDREDS of body parts which serve "purposes" which require premeditated design. In fact, there are many intelligent knowledgable people with impressive credentials who believe in this. (see "theistic evolution").

    (NOTE: To defeat my argument you must explain how that many COINCIDENCES(coinciding mutations)can happen and how can DNA see animals, recognize they're threats, realize that if it mutates it could create camouflage that could deceive, identify which mutations it needs in order to create this camouflage, and will the appropriate mutations to occur. It is the number of coincidences and the fact that DNA can't do the above things that is what has me convinced of premeditated design.)

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