The Invisible Universe Of The Human Microbiome

The Invisible Universe Of The Human Microbiome


The next time you look in the mirror,
think about this: In many ways, you’re more microbe than human. There are 10
times more cells from microorganisms, bacteria, viruses, fungi, than human cells
in and on our bodies. And our genes are outnumbered a hundred to one by microbial genes. Scientists even have a name for all these microbial genes: The Human Microbiome. Now, this might make a lot of people rush for the hand sanitizer, but it turns out most of these microorganisms aren’t bad germs that
will make us sick, most are good and without these good microbes our bodies don’t seem to do as well. We don’t seem to be as healthy and we actually might get sick more often. So one question is: where do our microbiomes come from in the first place? Well, like a lot of things, it starts with our mothers. As the
infant passes through the birth canal, it gets coated with microbes from the mom. These microbes may kind of seed the baby with just the right mix. Combined with
bacteria and breast milk and other microbes we encounter early on, they seem
to slowly take shape in our first few years of life. The overall mix of our
microbes becomes very personal, sort of like a fingerprint or maybe a blood type. But our microbes tend to resemble those of our parents and siblings and may stay with us for much of our lives. They may also be doing all sorts of things, such as educating our immune cells, like this one: teaching them the difference between
things they should fight off, bad bugs that might make us sick and things that
aren’t a threat, like our good microbes. When we’re adults, microbes become our
first line of defense, fighting off germs that try to invade our bodies, protecting
their turf while protecting our health. Scientists have discovered they can even
spew out their own antibiotics. The types of microbes in your body vary
depending on exactly where they live like different ecosystems in nature. There are wet places like our mouths, noses and armpits, oily places like our
scalps and backs and dry places like our forearms. Different species of microbes
have adapted to each of these habitats. The biggest, most important microbial
habitat seems to be in the gut. It’s the most complex, the most diverse and
everything microbes are doing everywhere else in our bodies- fighting off
infections, revving up and dampening down our immune systems, signaling cells-
that’s all happening in the gut in spades. They even seem to help regulate
our metabolisms, how much energy we burn and how much fat we store. So if it’s not
functioning properly for some reason because of what we eat, antibiotics we
take, that may actually lead to all kinds of diseases. Diseases like colon cancer,
colitis maybe even diabetes and obesity. Some scientists think one reason a lot
of diseases are increasing is because we’ve lost key gut microbes. Our microbiomes look far less diverse compared to those of people in less
developed countries and earlier generations and remember how we get our
microbiomes in the first place: from our mothers when we’re born and from breast
milk? Well, some scientists think that too many babies aren’t getting that because
of all the c-sections and not enough breastfeeding plus all the antibiotics
kids get these days and our obsession with cleanliness. All this may help
explain why problems like asthma and allergies have been soaring. Maybe
because our microbiomes never taught our immune systems how to work the right way. Maybe swallowing good microbes,
probiotics, could prevent and treat some diseases. So could taking prebiotics,
essentially food that good microbes love. We end our story with a reminder: this
research is really new. We still have a lot to learn about what many of our
microbes are really doing but scientists say that is getting clearer and clearer
that the tiny organisms all over our bodies are essential to our health and
happiness.

100 thoughts on “The Invisible Universe Of The Human Microbiome

  1. "existences can be likened and compared to particular ones, for both are subject to one natural order, one universal law, and one divine arrangement. For instance, you will find the smallest atoms to be similar in their genetic structure to the greatest entities in the universe,…" – Abdu’l-Baha, Some Answered Questions

  2. Let your kids play in the dirt. Let them fight of that puny little cold themselves, without the gun that is antibiotics. Sometimes we need that gun, like when we have an infected cut or wound, but not for light weights like colds.

  3. All of this is great speculation, despite some statements made as fact.

    I grew up on a beef farm, with our own gardens and developed allergies to horses, cats, dogs, and even doing work in humid cold weather. I suspect antibiotics, immunization shots, and possibly some exposure to GMO food and seeds, and possibly some fertilizers were the cause of my deteriorated health that I still suffer from today.

    I recognize that many scientists beliefs are simply wrong and are actually still speculation at this point.

    I wish people would not talk as stating facts that I know don't fit.

  4. Hi NPR!
    May I redistribute this video and give the Indonesian subtitle?
    I want to put it in a website or an app. Can I?

  5. It's all a left-wing conspiracy to teach our microbiota to be "sensitive" and want "safe spaces" so we end up culturing more SJWs in our guts!

    🙂

  6. Ya know, it was easier and took MUCH less time to say good morning to all of those near and dear to me before I learned this.

  7. I would like to add translation into Japanese for
    this superb lecture.
    The invisible universe of human microbiome2013 日本語訳
    次にあなたが鏡を見るとき考えて見ましょう。あなたの体にいるマイクロバイオームはあなた自身の細胞より10倍位多く、遺伝子数でいうと人の体にいるマイクロバイオーム(つまり細菌ウイルス真菌を合わせたもの)の遺伝子は人の細胞の遺伝子の100倍になります。科学者は人の体の微生物を人マイクロバイオームと呼びます。人は手や体を洗ってマイクロバイオームを取り除こうとしますが、これらのマイクロバイオームは我々の体を健康に保っているのでこれらの良いマイクロバイオームがいなくなると病気になります。
     ではこれらのマイクロバイオームは一体どこからくるのでしょうか?色々な物語と同様話はお母さんにつながります。赤ちゃんは産道を通るときに、産道のマイクロバイオームに覆われます。マイクロバイオームはちょうど種まきの様に撒かれ、細菌と母乳とうまく混ざり合い、初めの数年の間に形作られます。マイクロバイオームは指紋や血液型のように個性的ですが、両親や兄弟のものと似ていて、時に年老いても特徴が残っています。
    マイクロバイオームはあらゆることをしますが一例として我々の免疫系を教育します。マイクロバイオームは外から侵入してきた微生物が戦うべき悪玉菌か、善玉菌かを教えます。大人になるとマイクロバイオームは第一線で健康を守るために戦います。科学者たちはマイクロバイオームが自ら抗菌物質を出すことまで発見しました。
     体のマイクロバイオームはバラエティーに富み環境依存性です。例えば、口腔腋窩などの湿った場所、頭皮、背中、前腕などの乾いたところなどによって違います。そして、最も広大なマイクロバイオームの住処は腸管でもっとも複雑でバエティーに富み、腸管で起こる全ての出来事や免疫反応に関与します。マイクロバイオームは代謝にも関与し、どれだけのエネルギーを燃やし、どれだけの脂肪を蓄積するかも決めます。したがって、我々が食べたものによりマイクロバイオームがうまく機能しなくなると、様々な病気が起り得ます。例えば、大腸がん、大腸炎、そして糖尿病や肥満まで。
     科学者の中には、ある種の病気が増えているのは、我々が鍵となる腸内細菌を失ったからだと考えるものもいます。我々のマイクロバイオームは未開発の地域の人のマイクロバイオームに比べ多様性にかけています。そして人生の初めに母親と母乳からもらうはずのマイクロバイオームが、近年の周産期のケアや帝王切開、抗菌薬使用、そして清潔好きなどによって多様性が失われ、そのことが近年のアレルギーや喘息の増加を引き起こし、マイクロバイオームが免疫系を教育するチャンスをなくしているのかもしれません。
     ある種の良いプロバイオティクスがある種の疾患を予防するかもしれないし、ある種のプレバイオティクスは善玉菌のエサになるかもしれません。
     マイクロバイオームのはたらきはまだまだ緒に就いたばかりでさらにたくさんのことがわかってくるでしょう。しかし、科学者たちはヒトのマイクロバイオームはヒトの健康と幸福になくてはならないものであると確信しています。

    アニメ Benjyamin Arthur, 
    連絡先 Rob Stein, 
    音のデザイン Jpnathan ArthurS
    シニアプロデューサー Ben de la Cruz, Deborah Franklin, Joe Neel
     総監督 Anne Gudenkauf

  8. I love the animation! I especially loved when the little bacteria riding the other bacteria-with a war cry-charged bravely into battle. Epic! A great dramatization of the ceaseless work our body does to protect us against all the shit we fill ourselves with.

  9. Beautifully animated!!! If all biology topics were taught in the form of YouTube animations, everyone would want to major in biology!

  10. Great Video NPR! Used it on my blog for a Micro Flag! https://zebratigerfish.blogspot.com/2019/06/flag-micro-flag.html

  11. "Osmosis Jones II: Bacteria Affirmative Action—Now!" our heroes team up with the good microbes and the happy fungi band! Could also be a musical?

  12. They had to perform an emergency C-section on my mom toget me out. We both nearly died… also I never drank much breast milk since I would bite the nipple till it bled 😂

  13. super cute, but maybe someone without a speech impediment would have been a better choice. no hate, just couldn't understand some of the things being said.

  14. Immune system (and good bacteria) are national soldiers.
    Antibiotics and medicine are coalition soldiers (some people hate them or hate dealing with them).

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